The Relationship Between Science, Technology, and Society

Science and technology is the best thing society could ever ask for. Since the industrial revolution in the 18th century science has been in progress. Some sectors that have been boosted by science and technology are energy, physical sciences, information and communication. The society has greatly gained with the invention of technology.

Infrastructure in the society has grown with the help of science and technology. Modes of transport like electronic railway lines were realized and these actually benefited the society by offering them a better means of transport. In the past, almost everything was analog but thanks to the science and technology we are now being digitalized by the day. The invention of the telephone and radio services has broadened human communication.

Without society then there would be no science and technology and that is why the invention of certain tools and equipment have helped achieve big things. Society can not do without the industries we have today. The society needs science and technology. The creation of computers is work of art by individuals was a milestone that would come a long way in helping the society. A computer helps us to leverage ourselves by gaining valuable information that we can use to enrich our lives. The impact of science and technology can seriously be recognized. Many people around the world take for example scholars in colleges and universities have taken the lead examining the relationship between science and technology.

The evaluation of this relationship has emerged as an important area of research. Public interest groups and academic organizations throughout the world are recognizing the importance of STS. The reason is that people need to recognize that there are people who are affected by the science and technology. Controversies such as modified foods, stem cell research are the issues that have brought policy makers and scientists together to have a way forward on this.

Science and technology has actually largely contributed to the vision of man about himself. Science has been modified the opinion about the origin of man and place of origin too. Through the results of scientific discoveries the perception of man about his behavior and his place of origin has been modified diversely. Experiments in science today are in one way or another affecting the society.Take for example the experiment on cloning a human being. The experiment brought a lot of controversy since the society was skeptical about it.

How is science and technology related to society: The developing world has a long tradition of participatory action research, popular education and community organization joining up to solve some science and technology issues that affect the society. How is science and technology related to the society is something that is calling even for the government intervention. Science and technology related issues are actually been discussed worldwide today. Progress in this has resulted to the ability to produce diverse types of material items. Answering the question how science and technology is related to society.

Limits of Technology and the Limits of Science

In 1997, I managed to get a copy of the book "Limits to Growth", which was published in 1972. I knew the basic ideas contained in this book, by reading about it in previous years, but there was a very important idea, which I did not expect to find it there, the idea did not receive the attention it deserves. It a warning from the authors (mostly technical scientists), from putting hope that the technological advances that can come in the future, may resolve the serious problems threatening the world.

Perhaps the reasons behind the neglect of this very important idea,were two reasons. First, it is a terrifying idea, all the hopes of saving civilization, centered on the ability of new technology to do the job, and the second reason is that the Club of Rome (the group who issued a book),did not give strong evidence to confirming it.

This idea is one of the most difficult philosophical questions,and it is central to the issue of the collapse of modern civilization probably the Club of Rome based their expectations on some simple assumptions, such as, the probability of failure to achieve the saving technological developments, in time, given the expected imminence of the collapse, but if we wanted this idea to be established on strong theoretical bases, it is inevitable to go into the depths of philosophy.

I do not want to go, in this book, in the depth of this difficult subject, but I will try to simplify the idea, so that the interested reader, would find the basis for researches.

Technology is the application of the laws of the theory in science, and therefore, if we want to answer the question: "What are the limits of technology?" We must first answer the question: "What are the limits of science?"

Scientists in the field of theoretical physicists were trying,for many decades, to reach a theory they call, "theory of all forces" or "theory of everything", one of the famous scientists known for their dedication to this attempt, was Albert Einstein, these attempts means implicitly assume that there are limits to the theoretical knowledge, but theoretical physicists,did not often depend on philosophical basis to support this trend,and most of these attempts were established only on the personal perceptions of the possibility of achieving this ambitious goal. These attempts remain incomplete and the history of science gives us examples of the stages of previous science, where scientists thought they had already reached these final limits of science, maybe the most famous of these historical stages was the stage in the end of the nineteenth century. After the theory of Max well about the electromagnetic waves and before the explosion of the ideas of quantum and relativity, at the beginning of the twentieth century.

But philosophical thinking takes another course, the Dialectical materialism of the Marxism confirms that there are no limits to science, and in this trend it is followed by most modern philosophies.

It is very important to note that the introduction of the idea of infinite knowledge, in fact, does not solve the problem of an imminent collapse of civilization, but only puts it in a different form. The saving technological achievements, which are still needed very soon, if brought in tremendous intensity, the result will be that the question will change from "the collapse of civilization" to "the collapse of the image that we know, or that we can imagine for civilization", and this result does not differ. In fact, from the previous one, as it, in both cases, all things related to our current life, will end, the validity of this result,was approved by the American thinker Francis Fukuyama, in 1993, the credit for the courage,where the idea was incompatible with his famous idea of the "end of history", which was in the height of popularity at that time.

Science, Technology, and Intellectual Property

Science and technology provide many societal benefits, such as the enhancement of economic growth or quality of life. They also can produce negative, unintended consequences. Most societies promote science and technology, but this can be costly. Establishment of IPRs that protect new works and give innovators the right to profit from their creations provides incentives for expensive innovation without the need for direct government subsidies (Poisoner 2004). At the same time, IPRs may maintain or aggravate wealth inequities.

Rights have little meaning unless they can be enforced and modern technology has made IPRs enforcement increasingly difficult. Photocopiers make it possible for anyone with access to a machine to reproduce works entitled to copyright protection and the Internet allows anyone to make literary or musical works available to the world.

Science and technology challenge intellectual property systems, particularly patent laws. New fields such as information technology and genetic engineering force courts to decide how to apply laws made before such technologies were contemplated. As knowledge itself becomes more valuable, people and institutions seek additional protection for control of the knowledge and its profits. At the same time, society has an increasing need for access to some kinds of knowledge and protection from the use of others.

Abstract ideas cannot be patented but their applications can qualify for patent protection. For example, "Einstein could not patent his celebrated law that E MC2; nor could Newton have patented the law of gravity. Such discoveries are 'manifestations of Nature, free to all men and reserved exclusively to none."' (Diamond v. Chakrabarty, p. 309, quoting Funk Brothers Seed Co. v. Kalo Inoculate Co., 333 U.S. 127, 130, 1948). General ideas remain in the public domain but their applications may be privatized through the patenting process.

Biotechnology, perhaps more than any other field, has challenged courts and lawmakers to reconsider intellectual property laws. In 1972 Ananda Chakrabarty, a microbiologist, sought a U.S. patent for a genetically engineered bacterium. The U.S. Patent Office denied the application because bacteria are products of nature, and living things cannot be patented under U.S. law. The case was appealed and eventually reached the U.S. Supreme Court. The Court restated the principle that natural phenomena cannot be patented, but found that Chakrabarty's bacterium was "a product of human ingenuity," and therefore was patentable under U.S. law.

So many biotechnology patents have been issued for such small innovations that some fear the creation of a tragedy of the anti-commons in which new innovations involve so many existing patents that innovation is discouraged. At least one study has found the anti-commons is not yet a significant deterrent to innovation, but that the situation should be monitored.

IPRs can be attached to writings or products regarded as dangerous or immoral, and IPRs tend to legitimize such works by implying social approval. Societies must decide whether to provide protection for harmful or otherwise objectionable work. New technologies, particularly those that create or replicate life, often trigger debate over whether the work should be done at all, much less be protected by law. IPRs also establish ownership of particular innovations, which may help to determine liability if a product causes harm. This raises questions of whether innovators should be held responsible for their products, particularly when the products are used in unintended ways.

Public funding for science and technology further complicate intellectual property issues. Who should benefit from works developed under public funding, the creator or the public? What balance of public/private benefits best serves societal goals?

Academics build their reputations by producing intellectual works. They seek recognition for their accomplishments, control over any economic benefits, and protection against plagiarism. IPRs promote release of information to the public by assuring the author of protection for the work, even after it is made public. IPRs protect authors from possible appropriation of ideas by others, including peer reviewers, before the work has actually been published.

Ownership can be a major IPRs issue. Who owns the product of collaborative work? At what point does a contribution by a supervisor, graduate student, or coworker deserve coauthorship? When the creator works for a corporation or a university, does ownership lie with the creator or the institution? What about funding agencies? In many cases, ownership or authorship is established by disciplinary customs or by agreements among the parties (Kennedy 1997).

Plagiarism is professionally unacceptable and sometimes illegal, but timing is critical to determining whether plagiarism has occurred. According to Donald Kennedy, "To take someone else's idea and use it before it has been placed in the public domain is a form of theft ... [t]o make further use of someone else's idea after it has been published is scholarship" (1997, p. 212). Of course attribution is critical even, or especially, in scholarship, whether or not a work is protected.

Technology and Science Careers Merge

Do you remember how ten or twenty years ago, if you were in a certain industry such as health care, the lines were cut and dry - you were health care professional. Well, those lines are so rigid anymore. The lines between technology and science have really begun to blur with more technical people learning sciences and more health care professionals learning about technology. Some examples of that would include forensic science, case management, geriatric care management, genetics, artificial intelligence technician, aqua cultures, bionic electron technologist, computational linguist, cryonics technician and dialysis technologist to name a few.

Technology has been rampant in health care from medical records to surgery. Think about the last time you visited the doctor. Was the medical secretary sitting in front of a computer? 99.9% of the time the answer would be yes! Most medical records are computerized now and you need to have those technical skills along with the medical knowledge.

Health care has also been rampant in technology. There isn't much that happens in the health care world without the benefit of technology. Technology is responsible for the creation of those medical record forms as well as everything else from taking your blood pressure to doing complicated surgeries.

The lines between technical and health care professionals have truly blurred. As a health care analyst, you will not only need to have the technical background but you will also need to have knowledge of science and health to perform your job. At a minimum, you will need to know the jargon and be knowledgeable of health care policy as well as public health and medical services. As a health care professional, you not only need to know anatomy & physiology as well as all of the aspects of health care, you will also need to be technical to work in many positions.

So, if you are a job seeker in either of these fields and you are seeking a position that is clearly tech/health, make sure you really read the job description! There is nothing worse than going in for an interview when you truly are not qualified for the job! If you are in one of these fields and seeking a position, you might want to consider.

Health Care Job Site to find new health care jobs

Tech to find a new IT jobs. Even though the sites are listed separately, you will quickly see, when you read some of the job descriptions, just how much these two industries have really merged. Good luck!

Modern Science and Technology and the Challenges of Third World Countries

We live in a highly sophisticated world where everything is almost achievable. There would probably have been no changes between the world of today and that of three centuries ago if necessity and serendipitous discoveries had not driven men to achieve great things. Science and technology have had huge positive effects on every society. The world today has gone digital, even human thought. Our world has been reduced to a global village and is better for it.

The benefits of science and technology far outweigh every perceived shortcoming. Some of the biggest effects of technology are in the area of communication; through the internet and mobile phones. There is advancement of communication and expansions of economic commerce. Today we hear of information and communication technology (ICT). Any institution worth its name must have it in place to be really outstanding. Information technology has become boosted in today's generation; from the field of communication, business, education, and down to the entertainment industry. Through information technology, work performances are boosted with less effort and greater productivity by using various operations. Without computers or the internet, it will be difficult for people all over the world to get their questions answered. One may use the internet to locate a wealth of information with which to answer an essay question that may have been assigned at school, communicate with people, conduct transactions, access news, buy and advertise goods. The list is endless.

The advancement of Science and technology allow mass communication today so that we not only have the television, radio and newspaper, but even mobile phones which renders a multipurpose service; from long distance calls, listening to radio and music, playing games, taking pictures, recording voice and video, and browsing the internet. The benefits we obtain as a result of services from ICT have become widespread in our generation today. It improves the productive level of individuals and workers because People's knowledge of life beyond the area they lived in is now unlimited. This idea of mass communication also profoundly affects politics as leaders now have many ways they talk directly to the people. Apart from going on air to use radio or television, politicians resort to the social media for some of their political comments and campaign. Information about protests and revolutions are being circulated online, especially through social media. This has caused political upheavals and resulted in change of government in most countries today.

Furthermore, current global issues are much more accessible to the public. Communication has been brought also to the next level because one can find new ways to be able to communicate with loved ones at home.

Science and technology expand society's knowledge. Science helps humans gain increased understanding of how the world works, while technology helps scientists make these discoveries. Learning has maximized because of different media that are being developed which are all interactive and which bring learning experiences to the next level. Businesses have grown and expanded because of breakthroughs in advertising.

Modern technology has changed the way many companies produce their goods and handle their business. The idea and use of video and web conferencing, for instance, has helped companies remove geographical barriers and given them the opportunity to reach out to employees and clients through out the world. In today's economy, it has helped companies reduce the cost and inconveniences of travelling, allowing them to meet as often as they could like without having to worry about finding the budget to settle it. Modern technology helps companies reduce their carbon footprint and become green due to the fact that almost anything can be done from a computer.

There have been advances in medical care through the development of science and technology. Advances in medical technology have contributed immensely in extending the life span of people. People with disabilities or health problems are now more and more able to live closer to normal lives. This is because science contributes to developing medications to enhance health as well as technology such as mobile chairs and even electronics that monitor current body levels. Most devices used by the physically challenged people are customized and user friendly.

Science and technology increase road safety. Nowadays, law enforcement officers use Laser technology to detect when automobiles are exceeding speed limits. Technology has led to the development of modern machines such as cars and motorcycles which allow us to be mobile and travel freely and airplanes which travel at a supersonic speed.

Another machine, the air- conditioner, provides cool comfort, especially during hot weather. In offices where dress codes exist, people can afford to wear suits without being worried about the weather. It guarantees convenience even when the climate says otherwise.

Moreover, present day factories have modern facilities like machines and soft ware that facilitate production. These machines work with greater speed and perfection incomparable with human skills. These machines have enabled markets to have surplus products all over the world. For the soft ware, they make it possible for machines to be programmed, for production to be regulated, to monitor the progress being recorded and so on.

Modern technology indeed has been great. For third world countries, however, it has been challenging, especially the area of production. Only consuming and not been able to manufacture does not favour any country when it comes to balance of trade. The most sensitive parts of technology are the theoretical or conceptual parts and technical parts. These are the backbone of technological development anywhere in the world. Without the ideas, there will not be technology. Third world counties need to go back to the basics, that is, to the primitive. There must be meeting ground for tradition and modern technological invention. Third world countries engage in import substitution strategy where they import half finished goods and complete the tail end of the production process domestically. Third world countries started wrongly. They started with climbing the ladder from the top which is very wrong and difficult. They thought that being able to purchase and operate modern technological products qualifies for advancement in science and technological development. This makes third world countries to be a dependent system because working in the factories are routine work and this inevitably links to the issue of the idea of technology transfer. They should seek for technological transfer, but the problem is that no nation is ready to transfer her hard earned technological knowledge to any other nation for some certain reasons which drive nations into competition; world politics and economic prowess. That is the struggle to lead or dominate other nations technologically, economically and politically. Be the first to invent new gadgets and latest electronics including those used in modern warfare, use other nations as market for finished goods, and to have a strong voice and be able to influence other countries. They should consider embarking on technological espionage so as to acquire the rudiments for technological development if they must liberate themselves from the shackles of technological domination.

In conclusion, it's not until third world countries begin to put embargo on the importation of certain electronics and mechanical goods that the necessity to be creative would replace the habit of consuming foreign products. Countries like Thailand, Burma, Brazil, and South Africa and so on, should be emulated. These countries experienced colonialism yet they did not allow it to overwhelm their creative prowess. Industry and determination saw them emerge as economic giants in the world today. Third world countries should emulate them by carrying out proper feasibility studies to ascertain which technology will suit their country; giving more financial boost to this area, training people to become experts; motivating and encouraging individuals who are naturally endowed and technologically inclined to display their bests of talents. These measures if strictly adhered to will go a long way to help the advancement of these countries in the area of science and technology. If these countries must achieve greatness before the next decade, they have to make conscious and unrelenting efforts. The time starts now! The more they delay, the more backward they become.